Ser conjugation: Spanish verb ser

Ser conjugation: Spanish verb ser

Spanish verbs are divided into different groups, and each group is conjugated differently. Conjugation is the various arrangements of the verb form in an inflected language. In languages such as in Spanish, the conjugation verb helps us identify the voice, mood, tense, number, and person. Ser is a Spanish verb, that means “to be.” In this article, we will discuss the Spanish Verb Conjugation, especially the Ser conjugation.

Concept of Ser conjugation

The verb conjugation is the process of changing a verb form to make it more informative for the reader. For example, it gives us information about the action that one is performing. The conjugated form of the verb can give us some idea about the subject of the sentence. Firstly, it gives us an idea of the subject that is/are performing the action and secondly, the relation of the verb to other parts of the sentence. In conclusion, the concept of the conjugated verb in Spanish is nearly the same as in English. However, the details are far more complicated.

Ser is a Spanish irregular verb that means “to be.” Ser appears on the list of 100 Most Used Spanish Verbs and number one as the most used irregular verb.

For example:

In English: This could be an opportunity for us.

En español: Esta podría ser una oportunidad para nosotras.

In English: I want to be a doctor.

En español: Quiero ser un doctor.

Ser conjugation

Chart of ser conjugation words

●     Ser indicative conjugation

Present formsoyeresessomossoisson
Preterite formfuifuistefuefuimosfuisteisfueron
Imperfect formeraeraseraéramoseraiseran
Conditional formseríaseríasseríaseríamosseríaisserían
Future formseréserásseráseremosseréisserán

●     Ser subjunctive conjugation

Present formseaseasseaseamosseáissean
Imperfect formfuerafuerasfuerafuéramosfueraisfueran
Imperfect form 2fuesefuesesfuesefuésemosfueseisfuesen
Future formfuerefueresfuerefuéremosfuereisfueren

●     Ser imperative conjugation

Negativeno seasno seano seamosno seáisno sean

●     Ser continuous conjugation

Present formestoy siendoestás siendoestá siendoestamos siendoestáis siendoestán siendo
Preterite formestuve siendoestuviste siendoestuvo siendoestuvimos siendoestuvisteis siendoestuvieron siendo
Imperfect formestaba siendoestabas siendoestaba siendoestábamos siendoestabais siendoestaban siendo
Conditional formestaría siendoestarías siendoestaría siendoestaríamos siendoestaríais siendoestarían siendo
Future formestaré siendoestarás siendoestará siendoestaremos siendoestaréis siendoestarán siendo

●     Ser perfect conjugation

Present formhe sidohas sidoha sidohemos sidohabéis sidohan sido
Preterite formhube sidohubiste sidohubo sidohubimos sidohubisteis sidohubieron sido
Past formhabía sidohabías sidohabía sidohabíamos sidohabíais sidohabían sido
Conditional formhabría sidohabrías sidohabría sidohabríamos sidohabríais sidohabrían sido
Future formhabré sidohabrás sidohabrá sidohabremos sidohabréis sidohabrán sido

●     Ser perfect subjunctive conjugation

Present formhaya sidohayas sidohaya sidohayamos sidohayáis sidohayan sido
Past formhubiera sidohubieras sidohubiera sidohubiéramos sidohubierais sidohubieran sido
Future formhubiere sidohubieres sidohubiere sidohubiéremos sidohubiereis sidohubieren sido

Translation of ser conjugation words and example

●     Translation of ser conjugation (present form):

In the following table, we can see the translation of the present form of conjugated verb ser.

Ser conjugationTranslation in English
yo soyI am
tú eresYou are (informal)
él/ella/ello/uno esHe / she / one is
usted esYou are (formal)
nosotros somosWe are
vosotros soisYou all are (informal)
ellos/ellas sonThey are
Ustedes sonYou all are (formal)

Example of ser conjugation in the present tense :

En español: La boda es el veintisiete de junio.

In English: The wedding is on the 27th of June.

En español: Ellos son mis abuelos.

In English: They are my grandparents

●     Translation of ser conjugation (preterit tense):

In the following table, we can see the translation of the most used preterit form of conjugated verb ser.

Ser conjugationTranslation in English
yo fuiI was
tú fuisteYou were (informal)
él/ella/ello/uno fueHe/ she/ one is
usted fueYou were (formal)
nosotros fuimosWe were
vosotros fuisteisYou all were (informal)
ellos/ellas fueronThey were
ustedes fueronYou all were (formal)

Example of cer conjugation in preterit tense:

En español: Fuimos al baile anoche.

In English: We went to the dance last night.

En español: Fui a verte en tu casa.

In English: I went to see you at your house.

●     Translation of ser conjugation (imperfect tense):

There are only three irregular imperfect verbs in Spanish grammar and ser is one of them. In the following table, we can see the translation of the most used imperfect form of conjugated verb ser.

Ser conjugationTranslation in English
yo eraI used to be
tú erasYou used to be (informal)
él/ella/ello/uno eraHe/she/one used to be
usted eraYou used to be (formal)
nosotros éramosWe used to be
vosotros eraisYou all used to be (informal)
ellos/ellas eranThey used to be
ustedes eranYou all used to be (formal)

Example of cer conjugation in imperfect tense:

En español: Éramos futbolistas.

In English: We used to be soccer players.

En español:- Shakespeare era un gran escritor.

In English: Shakespeare was a great writer.

●     Translation of ser conjugation (future tense):

In the following table, we can see the translation of the most used future tense of conjugated verb ser.

Ser conjugationTranslation in English
yo seréI will be
tú serásYou will be (informal)
él/ella/ello/uno seráHe/she/one will be
usted seráYou will be (formal)
nosotros seremosWe will be
vosotros seréisYou all will be (informal)
ellos/ellas seránThey will be
ustedes seránYou all will be (formal)

Example of cer conjugation in future tense:

En español:- María será una gran bailarina.

In English: Maria will be a great dancer.

En español: Ustedes serán bienvenidos.

In English: You will be welcome.

Are ser and estar the same?

The Meanings of ser and estar in Spanish are the same. It is used as “to be.” Both of them are irregularly conjugated. In the following chart, we can see the indicative present tense of these two verbs. We use estar to address conditions and it doesn’t follow the regular conjugation -ar verbs.

Él, ella, ustedesestá

In English, a sentence or a verb can have different meanings. But in the case of Spanish, estar with its different forms tell us the exact meaning of the sentences.

For example,

The mango is green.

This sentence can mean two things. Firstly, the color of the mango is green and secondly, the mango is unripe.

But in Spanish, using different forms of estar we can specify the meaning of the sentence.

For example,

el mango es verde. (The mango is green) (essential characteristic)

el mango está verde. (The mango is green) (condition of the mango i.e. unripe)

Differences between ser and estar

Firstly and most importantly, we can differentiate ser and estar by thinking ser as the “passive” verb and estar as the “active” one. Though, the terms are not being used in a proper grammatical sense here. In one hand, ser as the verb in a sentence tells you about the subject, the nature of its being. While in other hand, estar refers more to what the subject does.

One might use soy (that is the first-person present of ser. It means “I am”) to explain who or what they are, but one would use estoy (that is the first-person present of estar) to tell what they are being or doing.

In a sentence, Ser can describe or inform you about:

  • Date (when an event is taking place)
  • Occupation
  • Characteristics (the material something is made of)
  • Time ( hour, day)
  • Origin
  • Nationality
  • Relation (one person to another)

In other hand, Estar can describe or inform you about:

  • Position
  • Location (geographical or physical)
  • Action (idiotic expressions)
  • Condition
  • Emotion

For example,

Case 1

Use of ser:

English: David is a happy person

Spanish: David es una persona feliz.

This sentence represents the personality of David.

Use of estar:

English: Dávid is in a good mood.

Spanish: Dávid está de buen humor.

This sentence represents the mood of David right now.

Case 2

Use of ser:

English: We are from Spain.

Spanish: Nosotros somos de España.

This sentence provides the subject an origin.

Use of estar:

English: We are on a journey to Spain.

Spanish: Nosotros estamos en un viaje por Spain.

This sentence provides the subject a current location that is not permanent.


Do you use ser or estar?

Ans. Ser and Estar both mean “to be” but we use them in different cases to specify the meaning of sentences. When ser gives us information about the relationship between two people, estar gives us information about the state of their relationship.

What is the difference between ser and ir?

Ans. Firstly, ser means “to be” and “Ir” means “to go.”

Is estar used for emotions?

Ans. Estar expresses the feeling or current state of mind. In other words, it is used to express the temporary physical condition.

What kind of verbs are ser and ir?

Ans. Ser and Ir are irregular verbs.